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Geography

Year 2 looked at food miles for Harvest. We looked at different foods and where they came from. We found countries on the globe and researched the distances the food had travelled.

 

Year 1

 

Knowledge

Skills

Locational and Place

Name and locate the world’s 7 continents and 5 oceans, understanding the terms ‘continent’ and ‘sea’.

Understand that a world map shows all the countries in the world. Identify the UK and the countries where members of the class come from.

 

 

Understand the geographical similarities and differences through studying the human and physical geography of a small area of the UK and of a small area in a contrasting non-European country.

Use maps and a globe to identify the continents and oceans and understand that both a map and a globe show the same thing.

Locate the continents on a paper map.

Use simple compass directions (North, South, East and West) to describe the location of features on a map.

 

Locate country on a map.

Study pictures/videos of a locality and ask geographical questions e.g. What is it like to live in this place? How is this place different to where I live?

Express own views about a place, people and environment.

Draw and label pictures to show how places are different.

Human and Physical Geography

Identify the human and physical features of the two localities studied.

 

 

 

 

 

Identify seasonal and daily weather patterns in the UK.

 

Use basic geographical vocab to refer to key physical features including: beach, coast, forest, mountain, sea, river, season: weather.

Use basic geographical vocab to refer to key human features, including: city, town, village, factory, farm, house and shop.

Be able to verbalise and write about similarities and differences between the features of the two localities.

Ask questions about the weather and seasons.

Observe and record e.g. draw pictures of the weather at different times of the year or keep a record of how many times it rains in a week in the winter and a week in the summer.

Express opinions about the seasons and relate the changes to changes in clothing and activities e.g. winter = coat, summer = t-shirts.

Fieldwork

Use simple fieldwork and observational skills to study the geography of the school building and grounds and the key human and physical features of its surrounding environment e.g. note taking, photographs, data collection, sketches, observations.

Observe and record information about the local area e.g. how many shops there are near the school, how many bus stops are there close to the school.

Children to take photos of interesting things in the local area and explain what the photos show.

On a walk in the local area, children to pick things up e.g. a stick, stone, leaf etc and use them to create memory maps to show the journey.

Study aerial photographs of the school and label it with key features e.g. school, church, park, shops.

Look at a simple map of the local area and identify the things they know and have seen.

Make a simple map.

Create an aerial map of the school/local area as a class by using different sized blocks.

 

Year 2

 

Breadth of Study

Skills

Locational and Place knowledge

Name, locate and identify the characteristics of the 4 countries and capital cities of the UK.

 

 

Understand the geographical similarities and differences through studying the human and physical geography of a small area of the UK and of a small area in a contrasting non European country (a different location to the one studied in year 1)

Use maps and globes to locate the UK.

Be able to identify the 4 countries and label the capital cities.

Explain the purpose of a capital city and form opinions on how this affects population size.

 

Study pictures/videos of two differing localities, one in the UK and one in a contrasting on European country, and ask geographical questions e.g. What is it like to live in this place? How is this place different to where I live? How is the weather different? How are lifestyles different?

Study pictures of the localities in the past and in the present and ask ‘How has it changed?’

Draw pictures to show how places are different and write comparatively to show the difference.

Express own views about a place, people and environment. Give detailed reasons to support own likes, dislikes and preferences.

Human and Physical Geography

Identify the location of hot and cold areas in the world in relation to the Equator and the North and South Poles.

 

 

 

 

Identify the human and physical features of the two localities studied.

 

 

 

Use both maps and globes, identify the coldest places in the world – The North and South pole, related to their study of the Arctic. Make predictions about where the hottest places in the world are?

Children to identify the equator and locate the places on the Equator which are the hottest.

 

Use basic geographical vocab to refer to key physical features, including: beach, cliff, coast, forest, hill, mountain, sea, ocean, river, soil, valley, vegetation, season and weather.

Use basic geographical vocab to refer to key human features, including: city, town, village, factory, farm, house, office, port, harbour and shop.

Fieldwork

Fieldwork to develop knowledge and understanding of the school and local area.

 

 

Use simple fieldwork and observational skills to study the geography of their school and its grounds and the key human and physical features of its surrounding environment – fieldwork in the local area/close proximity to the school e.g. the road, park, river, shops.

Study maps and aerial photographs and use simple compass directions (North, South, East and West) and locational and directional language to describe the location of features and routes on a map.

Draw own maps of the local area; use and construct basic symbols in a key.

 

Observe and record the features around the school e.g. the different types of plants, the animals seen by the river compared to the animals seen on the road, the different amounts of traffic on the Rosehill roundabout compared to the school road.

Children to make suggestions for the cause of the differences.

Communicate findings in different ways e.g. reports, graphs, sketches, diagrams, pictures.

 

Children make sketches/notes of their trip to school/trip to the river and then create a map to direct others which uses a key and includes the main physical and human features.

 

Year  3

 

Knowledge

Skills

Locational and Place

Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping (Google Earth) to locate the countries of Europe, including Russia.

Look at the environmental regions of Europe (different areas defined by their environmental conditions, such as climate, landforms, soil etc).

Identify the key physical and human characteristics, countries and major cities e.g. rivers, mountains, capitals, landmarks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Know the position and significance of the Equator, the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

 

 

 

Compare a region of the UK with a volcanic region of Italy e.g. Sicily. Identify similarities and differences between this region and a region of the UK.

Build on prior knowledge of UK regions by using maps to locate countries of Europe.

Study maps to make assumptions about the different areas of Europe e.g. using map keys to identify mountainous areas, urban areas.

Identify hilliest areas and flattest areas as well as decide which rivers they think are the largest.

Study some pictures of different parts of Europe (e.g. top of a mountain, on the banks of a river, on a farm. Make reasoned judgements about where the pictures are taken and defend e.g. a mountain top may be in France because there is a large mountain range there.

Match key landmarks to the country and make suggestions as to how landmarks affect a country (tourism, economy etc) e.g. Eiffel tower in Paris generates a lot of revenue through tourism. Relate to UK landmarks.

Use the language of ‘north’, ‘south’, ‘east’, ‘west’ to relate countries to each other.

 

Using maps, locate the Equator, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Consider the countries and climates that surround these lines and discuss the relationships between these and the countries.

Critically study photographs – do they think these were taken close to the Equator or further away.

 

Look at maps, pictures and other sources to identify similarities and differences between a UK region and Sicily. Compare physical and human features, draw conclusions, pose questions and use prior knowledge of map reading.

Identify main trade and economy in Sicily and compare to region of the UK.

Look at settlements, particularly in relation to the volcanoes – what conclusions can be drawn?

Analyse evidence and draw conclusions e.g. make comparisons between locations using photos/pictures, temperatures in different locations and population numbers.

Human and Physical Geography

Study of volcanoes – causes, effects etc. Do a short study of the Pacific Ring of Fire and compare to Sicily.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Study how human Geography has changed over time (These can all be covered in one or two lessons of each history topic).

Locate places in the world where volcanoes occur.

Understand and be able to communicate in different ways the cause of volcanoes and the process that occurs before a volcano erupts.

Draw diagrams, produce writing and use the correct vocabulary for each stage of the process of volcanic eruption.

Ask and answer questions about the effects of volcanoes.

Discuss how volcanoes affect human life e.g. settlements and spatial variation.

 

Ask, research and explain the following questions: Why did the stone age civilization, the iron age settlers and the Romans choose to settle where they did? What were their settlements like? How did they use the land and how has land use changed today? What was Celtic and Roman Merton like? How did they trade? How is that different today?

Relate land use and trade to settlements.

Fieldwork

Understand the 8 compass points and use them to explain/identify points on a map.

 

Fieldwork project

 

Use locational language to describe the location of points on a map of the school/local area.

 

 

e.g. Tell the children some visitors are coming to visit the area in which you live, which includes a tour around the school building and grounds. Plan a tour of the school, which includes a map/ plan of the school and the main geographical features you would see identified, with a key.

Take digital photographs of the main features of the school and plot them on to a map to show the route round the school, using coordinates to show where these key features are

Undertake environmental surveys of the school grounds - litter, noise, likes/ dislikes, areas for improvement

Use the school grounds to undertake weather surveys, including wind direction, where the sun shines (north, south, west), recording a changes and observations using a method of choice e.g. rainfall - is it the same on all sides of the school.

Make an aerial plan/map of the school, drawing round different sized blocks (moved on from year 1 collective aerial planning using blocks).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year  4

 

Knowledge

Skills

Locational and Place

Understand the difference between the Northern and Southern hemisphere.

 

 

 

Understand the term ‘climate zones’ and identify some differing ones. Touch upon global warming and its implications.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A focus on biomes: A biome is a large region of Earth that has a certain climate and certain types of living things. The main types are: Tundra, Desert, Grassland, Tropical Rain Forest.

Identify where some of these are on the world map.

Focus in particular on the biomes of Antarctica and on the Amazon rainforest (covered within existing topics).

Whilst studying the Amazon and Antarctica, make comparisons with the UK.

Whilst studying Antarctica, look briefly at physical Geography around glaciers.

 

While studying the Amazon rainforest, spend two lessons using maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping (Google Earth) to locate the countries, mountain ranges, capitals, rivers and oceans of South America.

Identify the different hemispheres on a map.

Use the compass points N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW to direct and locate using a compass.

Locate and label different countries/continents in the Northern and Southern hemispehere.

Raise questions about the different hemispheres and make predictions on how they think life will be different in the two hemispheres.

 

Use and explain the term ‘climate zone’.

Identify the different climate zones.

Ask questions and find out what affects the climate.

Use maps to identify different climate zones.

Discuss and compare the climate zones of the UK and relate this knowledge to the weather in the local area.

Children to ask questions about global warming.

Discover the cause of global warming and research the implications.

Reach reasoned and informed solutions and discuss the consequences for the future.

Identify changes to be made in own lives in response to this.

 

Understand the term ‘biome’.

Use knowledge of this term to make suggestions for places in the world which may be biomes.

Once the children are aware that the main types are tundra, desert, grassland and rain forest, children to use maps to locate areas they think may be biomes e.g. very green areas could be rainforests, flat pale ones could be deserts etc. Defend reasoning using knowledge of maps.

Focus on Amazon rainforest – identify the climate, the habitats, the plant and animal types and how people live in the rainforest. Study life in the Amazon rainforest through primary sources – recounts/photographs, and ask questions, make comparisons to life in the UK and consider how life in the UK may be similar.

Discuss how the rainforest may be linked to us e.g. trade.

Locate other rainforests using Google earth and maps, identifying patterns in their location.

 

Whilst studying Antarctica, use photographic evidence to raise questions about the climate and living conditions there. Make assumptions based on images/videos/Google Earth searches about life there and the animals which may survive in those conditions.

Make comparisons between this biome and others, discussing with classmates the similarities as well as the differences.

Select  items required to survive in Antarctic conditions.

Develop informed opinions about global warming in relation to the Antarctic and develop reasoned arguments about our role on the planet.

Linked to Science, study photographs of Antarctic animals and reflect on how the animals are adapted to the conditions.

Design interesting and relevant studies that may be carried out in Antarctica.

Compare life in Antarctica with life in the UK. Chn present their views in a variety of ways (diary, report etc) on what the think life in Antarctica is like. Read real accounts and compare.

 

Use maps, globes and Google Earth to identify the continent of South America. Looking at a map of climate zones, children to use prior knowledge of the world to identify the climate they think may exist in different parts of South America.

Identify and mark on a map the different countries of South America.

Identify the major cities and consider how they differ to other regions in the country.

Looking at photographs, children to compare and contrast two differing regions e.g. rich/poor Brazil, hilly/icy Argentina.

Using photographs, children to make connections between South America and the UK.

Locate the mountain ranges, rivers and oceans.

Consider how the location of these geographical features has shaped life. Refer to UK e.g. London and the Thames/Lake District.

Understand how geographical features are marked on a map. Using this knowledge, children to study world maps to identify other major cities, hilly areas, rivers etc.

Ask geographical questions e.g. Are there any links? (big cities near rivers, less populated areas near hilly ones etc).

Human and Physical Geography

Whilst studying history, Why did the Anglo Saxons and the Vikings choose to settle where they did? What were their settlements like? How did they use the land and how has land use changed today? What was Anglo Saxon Merton like? How did they trade? How is that different today?

 

Look at pictures and labeled diagrams of different historical settlements over time.

Produce own pictures and labeled diagrams.

Ask and answer questions through own knowledge and self-conducted research: What resources were used? Why were they used? Why were their settlements so different? What tools were available? What was the purpose of the settlements?

Study maps of Anglo Saxon and Roman settlements. Draw conclusions about the location of the settlements based on prior knowledge. Compare with current maps and make suggestions about change.

Study how land in the local area was used during the historical periods studied. Look at land use in the same area today and consider how and why this has changed.

Identify main economies in the immediate area. Compare with trade in the past. Why has this changed.

 

 

Fieldwork

Children begin to experiment with and understand 4 figure grid references on maps.

 

Fieldwork study – 2 weeks

  • e.g. Survey the use of land in the immediate locality of the school e.g. local high street, walking distance area, using the following classifications:
    • Residential: houses, flats, hotels, hostels
    • Retail: food, clothing, footwear, sports, toys, furniture, etc….
    • Professional/ Commercial: solicitors, banks, building societies, company offices etc….
    • Industrial and Storage: machine tools, engineering, factories, warehouses
    • Entertainment/ Leisure: theatres and cinemas, public houses, restaurants, cafes
    • Public Authorities: local government offices, police, libraries, hospitals, churches, chapels, schools
    • Other: vacant property, car parking, open spaces, development sites
  • Compare the land-use in the area chosen with old maps and photographs of the same area to examine how the land-use has changed over time. Investigate why the land-use has changed
  • Undertake a survey of buildings and materials
  • Investigate what jobs people do within and beyond the school, in the local area. Sort them into categories and investigate where and how far people travel to work
  • Compare shops in the local area with the nearest city centre
  • Interview/ question people who use the shops about the services/ types of shop provided/ shopping habits

 

Design questions and studies to conduct in the local area.

Identify local features on a map and begin to experiment with four figure grid references, using them to locate and describe local features.

Undertake surveys.

Conduct investigations.

Classify buildings.

Use recognised symbols to mark out local areas of interest on own maps.

Choose effective recording and presentation methods e.g. tables to collect data.

Present data in an appropriate way using keys to make data clear.

Draw conclusions from the data.

 

 

 

Year 5

 

Knowledge

Skills

Locational and Place

Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping (Google Earth) to locate the countries of Africa.

Use 4 figure grid references to read maps.

Make connections between the Equator and the tropics and Africa.

Identify largest urban areas in Africa and the deserts/plains etc.

Compare 2 different regions in Africa, rural/urban.

 

In Science, when looking at night and day, look at the Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones.

 

 

 

Depth study of the UK:

Environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, major cities and national parks. Look at counties, hills, mountains, coasts. Choose 3 key areas of the UK and look at how land use has changed over time.

Confidently use maps, globes and Google Earth.

Use atlases/maps to describe and locate places using 4 figure grid references.

 

Locate the Equator on a map, atlas and globe and draw conclusions about the climates of countries on the Equator and on the tropics.

Locate largest urban areas on a map and use geographical symbols e.g. countours to identify flattest and hilliest areas of the continent.

Ask questions e.g. what is this landscape like? What is life like there?

Study photos/pictures/maps to make comparisons between locations.

Identify and explain different views of people including themselves.

 

Use maps to locate features of the UK e.g. rivers, mountains, large cities.

Explain and defend which are physical and which are human features.

Label counties, cities, mountains and rivers.

Study photographs and maps of 3 different locations in the UK. Ask Geographical questions e.g. How was the land used in the past? How has it changed? What made it change? How may it continue to change?

Human and Physical Geography

Rivers and the water cycle including transpiration

 

 

 

 

 

 

Human geography including trade between UK and Europe and ROW.

Fair/unfair distribution of resources (Fairtrade).

 

 

 

 

 

During the Victorian times, how was the land used, what was the main economy in Merton and what were the trade links? How does this compare to today?

Use the language of rivers e.g. erosion, depositation, transportation.

Explain and present the process of rivers.

Compare how river use has changed over time and research the impact on trade in history.

Research and discuss how water affects the environment, settlement, environmental change and sustainability.

 

Identify trade links around the world based on a few chosen items e.g. coffee, chocolate, bananas.

Discover where food comes from.

Discuss and debate fair trade.

Investigate the facts and join in a reasoned discussion.

Generate solutions and promote ethically sound trade.

 

Study maps and pictures of Victorian Merton. Compare and contrast photos and maps from today.

Discuss land use and draw conclusions about the reasons for this based on the human inhabitants and changing needs.

Explain and present the differences between Victorian Merton and present day Merton.

Reflect on the impact trade has on an area and generate ideas for cause and effect.

Fieldwork

When studying both Victorians and rivers, walk down to the River Wandle. Talk about the trade route that this used to be. Children to make field notes/observational notes about the land there to be discussed at school when talking about the features of rivers. Children to take photos to support their notes. Look at the land use their now and compare this to how it would have been during Victorian times.

Look for evidence of past river use by visiting the location.

Make field notes/observational notes about land features.

Visit a river, locate and explain the features.

Take photographs to support findings e.g showing different transport used in the area today which would not have been used during Victorian times.

Study pictures of the river in Victorian times and compare and contrast.

Select a method to present the differences in transport in the area today.

Record measurement of river width/depth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year 6

 

Knowledge

Skills

Locational and Place

6 figure grid references.

Name and locate the key topographical features including coast, features of erosion, hills, mountains and rivers. Understand how these features have changed over time.

 

On a world map locate the main countries in Africa, Asia and Australasia/Oceania. Identify their main environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, and major cities.

Children to be able to identify main capital cities/oceans etc.

 

Understand the significance of Latitude and longitude.

 

Study of North America

-Environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics. Major cities, mountain ranges, rivers, lakes, landmarks.

Use 6 figure grid references to identify countries and cities in the world, the main mountain ranges and the longest rivers.

Understand how these features may have changed over time.

Select the most appropriate map for different purposes e.g atlas to find a country, Google Earth to find a village.

 

 

Explain the climates of given countries in the world and relate this to knowledge of the hemispheres, the Equator and the Tropics.

Locate the major cities of the world and draw conclusions as to their similarities and differences.

 

Use maps to identify longitude and latitude.

 

Study maps of the USA to identify environmental regions. Compare and contrast these regions.

Locate the key physical and human characteristics. Relate these features to the locality e.g. population sizes near tourist landmarks/rivers, transport links to mountains.

Locate all the man made features in the USA e.g. Statue of Liberty, Golden Gate Bridge, Grand Canyon, Yosemite National Park, The White House etc. and relate to UK landmarks. Reflect on the importance and value of the tourism industry in these areas.

Human and Physical Geography

Earthquakes/natural disasters – floods, tsunamis

 

 

 

 

Study of Morden land and settlements pre and post war compared to modern day.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Trade.

 

 

 

 

 

Distribution of natural resources.

Describe and explain the processes that cause natural disasters.

Draw conclusions about the impact of natural disasters through the study of photographs, population numbers and other primary sources.

 

Study photographs, aerial photographs and maps of Morden pre war, post war and present day.

Compare maps and aerial photographs.

Make comparisons and reflect on the reasons for the differences.

Study population numbers throughout the course of WWII and reflect on the reasons for changes.

Study pictures of land use during these three periods. Draw conclusions and develop informed reasons for the changes.

Study one key building in the locality during the three periods (e.g. hospital) and reflect on the changes.

Look at maps on different scales and calculate scales on own maps.

 

Research and present Britain’s export trade.

Ask and answer the following geographical questions: What are our main export businesses? Which countries do we trade with most? What may be the reasons for this?

Why do we need to import from elsewhere? Where does Britain lead industry? Where does it not? What conclusions can be drawn?

Fieldwork

Fieldwork/traffic study

  • Undertake a traffic survey of the local main road - tally counting, types of vehicle observed, comparing the traffic flow at different times of the day, parking problems, varying needs of different high street users - shopkeepers, children, senior citizens, businesses
  • Collate the data collected and record it using data handling software to produce graphs and charts of the results.
  • Ask Geographical questions e.g. how is traffic controlled? What are the main problems?
  • Undertake a street/ noise survey of the local road/ high street
  • Undertake a general survey of the local road/ high street:
  • Form and develop opinions e.g. Do the pupils like/ dislike the road/ street
  • Compare road with another busier/ quieter street/ road
  •  Make suggestions and reflect on own beliefs. Which street/ road do the pupils prefer? What changes/ improvements would they make to either environment?
  • With the children’s help, design and carry out a survey of the views of people in the high street to find out what they think are the benefits/ drawbacks of closing the high street to traffic. Use local maps to find other routes traffic might take.
  • Report on the effects of environmental change on themselves and others.
  • Carry out a role-play where pupils look at the issue of traffic in the high street from different viewpoints, making presentations to represent different points of view. This could lead to a class debate for the best way to improve traffic in the high street/ road.
  • Select methods for collecting, presenting and analysing data
  • Analyse evidence and draw conclusions
  • Be aware of own responsibility in the world

 


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